Gender Inequality

Gender Inequality

My research topic is Gender Inequality. I choosed this topic because it is a common topic that has been talked in society since long years. There are some norms and people behave accordingly related to those norms. But it has changed little bit when we look at past and now. I will search what are the inequalities between woman and man? And how did they have changed? Why they have changed? İs it neccessary to have inequalities between woman and man? İs there the same inequality between woman and man in whole world? If there is no inequalities between woman and man what would happen? I am really intrested on these questions. CMN Term Project will be a good chance for me to search and learn these questions.

The amount of gender inequality changes in every country. It is about the development amount of the country and also it is related to expectations. Every country have different expectations for both men and women.  Also it refers to the rights, resposibilites, expectations and relationship of men and women. Laws for woman are more solid when it is compared to mens. In the countries such as Egypt, Israel, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia are governed by religion based personal status. Also in Turkey, the leader of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk brought the reforms for women. He provide the same rights to women with men. They had equal rights and opportunities. These reforms are the first step for the status of woman in Turkey. As another example also in Ireland men are more advantaged as we look at the statistics of education, health, decision making and employment. For the families the decisions are made by the men. When children wants money he or she should want from their father because according to the norms men has a status of head of household. There is a male decision making power.

Also there is one more reason which is a materialist theory refers gender inequality as an outcome of how women and men are connected to the economic structure of society. This refers that womens role is being mother and wife. Women work for the directed inward to the family and mens work is directed outward to the marketplace. When women work in a marketplace they often work in lower paying jobs. And after they should take care of child women leave the job. So looking to this story we see that women have had lower level of education than men but this have been changed to reverse. Today women also want to be an individual and also want to earn the same amount of money. They want to improve themselves as personal. They also want to show that they can  survive in the world as an individual there is no need to men for survive. No one need anyone else to live their own live how they directly want and dream.

When we look at the statistics for the topics such as driving, employment, health and the decision making roles we can easily see that the male figure is usually above the female figure. For the ‘’Driving’’ topic the numbers refere that the percentage of males driving proportion was 81% in 2007-2009. And the proportion of female driving has changed and inceased from 60% to 66% in last few years.this shows that males have higher amount of driving proportion than females but as we see there is a improvement in female proportio

The second topic is ‘’Employment’’. There is a increase in ages of people who are working over time. Both in males and females when we look at the statistics. Working age females in emplotment increased from 57.1  in 1992 to 64.0 in males it increased to 70. The reason for working was being a student and disability for males and family home responsibilities for females. In 2009 the highest proportions of both females 88.3%  and males 57.0% worked in service industries.  The proportion of males working part-time was 6.5% in 1992 and 9.5% in 2009. For females the proportion working part-time was 39.1% in 1992 and 40.2% in 2009. In 2009 the median number of basic weekly hours worked by men was 37.6 whilst for women it was 32.5. The median number of overtime hours worked in 2009 for men was 5.3 hours while it was 3.8 hours for women. (Labour Force Survey)

Proportion of persons of working age without a qualification


        OVERALL                                               GENDER

                                              Female                                                  Male

%                           %                                                    %

1992    37.0                         38.6                                                35.5

1993    35.4                         37.9                                                32.9

1994    34.9                         35.9                                                34.0

1995    31.5                         35.0                                                29.4

1996    – – –

1997    27.6                         28.9                                                26.3

1998    27.3                         28.0                                                26.6

1999    26.6                         26.6                                                26.5

2000    26.9                         27.2                                                26.7

2001    25.6                         26.4                                                24.9

2002    25.2                         26.4                                                24.0

2003    24.1                         25.5                                                22.8

2004    25.8                         24.9                                                26.7

2005    23.7                         22.9                                                24.3

2006    23.1                         22.2                                                23.9

2007    21.9                         19.5                                                24.2

2008    21.8                         18.8                                                24.5

2009    21.0                         18.9                                                22.9


The third point is ‘’Health’’. The standardised death rate for males has decreased from 9.4 per 1,000 in 1992 to 7.9 per 1,000 in 2009, and the rate for females has decreased from 9.0 per 1,000 in 1992 to 8.2 per 1,000 in 2009. In 2003/04, 63% of males and 50% of females had participated in sport or physical activity in the previous 12 months (sport or physical activity excludes walking), and this has decreased to 54% and 41% respectively in 2009/10. The proportion of males that reported being a cigarette smoker decreased from 33% in 1990/91 to 24% in 2009/10, while female cigarette smokers decreased from 31% to 24% respectively The proportion of males that reported consuming levels of alcohol above the sensible level increased from 17% in 1990/91 to 26% in 2008/09, while females consuming above the sensible level increased from 5% to 10% respectively. The EASR for lung cancer has decreased slightly for males and remained relatively stable for females. The rate for males was 77.9 per 100,000 in 1993 and 65.8 per 100,000 in 2008, while the rate for females was 34.6 per 100,000 in 1993 and 33.7 per 100,000 in 2008.

(Annual Report of the Registrar General Continuous Household Survey,  Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, General Registrar’s Office)


Standardised Death Rates

Male                                      Female                              All

1992                         9.4                                           9.0                                  9.2

1993                         9.7                                           9.4                                  9.6

1994                         9.2                                           9.2                                  9.2

1995                         9.3                                           9.3                                  9.3

1996                         9.2                                           9.2                                  9.2

1997                         8.9                                           9.0                                  9.0

1998                         8.9                                           8.9                                  8.9

1999                         9.1                                           9.5                                  9.3

2000                         8.7                                           9.0                                  8.9

2001                         8.5                                           8.7                                  8.6

2002                         8.4                                           8.8                                  8.6

2003                         8.3                                           8.7                                  8.5

2004                         8.3                                           8.5                                  8.4

2005                         8.2                                           8.3                                  8.2

2006                         8.3                                           8.4                                  8.3

2007                         8.4                                           8.3                                  8.3

2008                         8.3                                           8.5                                  8.4

2009                         7.9                                           8.2                                  8.1


Source: Demography and Methodology Branch, NISRA

The fourth and the last point that ı have searched is ‘’Desicion Making Roles’’. In 1997 1 in 10 people were female in civil service in the Northern Ireland Civil Service and 9 in 10 were male. In 20120 the figures were 31% female and 69% male. (Human Resource, Consultancy Services)

As a conclusion ı can say that ı have learned that the man and woman percentages are never same. Because their nature and nurture are different so they both have different responsibilities, expectations and goals. But in some points they look more similar. The numbers also change in every country. As we look at the numbers we can see that nearly in all of them there is an increase, in a positive way. World changes quickly and also people change with the world. It helps people to survive better and be more comfortable in life. And i also helps to be accepted by the society.


1)  (website)

2)   violence-against-women.en.mfa  (website)

3) (website)

4) (website)

5) (website)



Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela died on December 5, 2013.  Mandela, the president of the Republic of South Africa and  symbolize peace, he spent more than 40 years as a president. 27 of them in prison. As a central figure in the struggle against South Africa’s brutal and restrictive racial regime called apartheid. In 1994, shortly after the fall of apartheid, Mandela was elected President of South Africa in a multiracial, democratic election, making him the country’s first black president. He symbolize justice and equality. In addition he is being an icon of resistance and perseverance.

Under apartheid, the South African population was divided into four racial groups: white, black, colored, and Indian. economic, and social segregation was done looking to racial groups. Non whites were not allowed to vote in national election. While non-whites were at ghettoes with few decent educational and employment opportunities, whites were afforded the basic privileges of life in a democracy.


The black unemployment rate has consistently been twice as high as the white unemployment rate for 50 years:

the unemployment rate was 5 percent for whites and 10.9 percent for blacks. Today, it’s 6.6 percent for whites and 12.6 percent for blacks.

Justice was talked through long years by african americans and it denied for so long.  The law should be equal for all people. Black people shouldn’t take the teice as stiff as a white person doing the same crime.we should be disciplined and judged by the same standarts. Justice means that all of us should have the same access to all the resources that God created in the earth, that no one should go lacking because of his or her sex or skin color or religion. That’s what justice means.

Justice means that the rich and the poor should be judged alike, that no person would be poor because of conditions created by the larger society. If people are poor, it should be that they choose to be poor. Most poor people in our society do not choose poverty. More than 75 percent of all poor people work every single day. We must eliminate conditions in the society that create poverty. The same quality of health services, education, housing, nutrition, and clothing available to white children should be available to black children.
For the past 50 years, black unemployment has been well above recession levels


 In fact, the wealth disparity between whites and blacks grew even wider during the Great Recession

The wealth gap between minorities and whites has not improved over the past three decades. From 1983 to 2010, average family wealth for whites has been about six times that of blacks and Hispanics. The gap in actual dollars growing as average wealth increased for both groups.

In April of 1994, Nelson Mandela the ANC’s candidate became to the first black president in South Africa’s history. This victory represented the official end of apartheid and a moment of major triumph for black South Africans.$1024

Importance of references in establishing the validity and revelance of a piece of scientific research

Human values, knowledge, convictions  are relative. Nothing in this world can known as ‘Ultimate Truth’. The ‘Ultimate Truth’ does not exist under our current laws of physics. It is not easy to be sure that the scientific discoveries are true or false. It is dynamic so it might change in a short time after an experiment.

To find the true knowledge from the experiences or observations we should search for it more than once. Because of it is dynamic we can come across with different informations. And  we should do those searchs from different sources. No one can find or know everything so while researching it is good to look different sources. It also might help us to understand better. It would help us to figure out and form in our minds. Or while doing an experiment we should do that scientific experiment several times because we might not find the true knowledge at first. So if we do it more than once we can be sure that the knowledge is true.we can find the true knowledge with an emphasis on quality of research by checking, questioning and theorizing. Our knowledge comes to us through the limited tools we have.  the mind, senses, the experiments we conduct, and through casual confrontations. In as much as those tools are aided by scientific experiments and systematic methods on the relevant fields and in laboratories, the results, as well as the methods applied and the tools used, are subject to the laws of physics, chemistry, biology, physiology (scientific).

Scientific knowledge regarded as truth is always tantetive. Science is based on the premise that the process must be objective. Because there are no ultimate truths for scientific informations. Professors should be objective and they should work hard to give the true knowledge. The information that will known as true for a long time.

How many family meals can stop eating disorders

In the article ‘’How many family meals can stop eating disorders’’. We see that eating healthy is really important to live healthy. Teenagers usually prefer to eat outside with their friends. And everyday the percentage of the teenagers who eat fast food outside gets higher. In 1900, 2 percent of meals were eaten outside the home. In 2010, 50 percent were eaten away from home. Maybe this might happen 2-3 times a week but as we read in the article if it happens everyday of the week they come across with some disorders. Such as bulumia and anorexia. Eating around the circle table with the family is important to have good eating habits. One hundred years ago all we ate was local, organic food, real, whole food. There were no fast food restaurants, there was no junk food, there was no frozen food. There was just what your mother or grandmother made. Most meals were eaten at home. In the modern age that tradition, that knowledge, is being lost. Meals shouldnt be skipped. Research shows that children who have regular meals with their parents do better in every way, from better grades, to healthier relationships, to staying out of trouble.  İf the meals are eaten at the true time, teen wont want smoke to lose weight or wont skip meals in conclusion they wont have bad eating habits.

According to an experiment professor found that who eat at least 5 times at home with their family %35 less likely to be disordered eaters. Disordered eaters means taking diet pills, smoke to lose weight or skipping meals. So this means if the teenager is eating five times at home in a week it is a enough number to be sure that the children is healthy. Even three is a enough number for eating the meals at home. According to another experiment proffessors have found that %12 is less likely to be overweight than those who didn’t share three meals at home. When we look at the statistics we can easily see that even  one number of meal shouldnt be skipped because it changes the percentages it is really hassas. And  it provides a setting. Journal perdiatrics report that the once who eat three meals at home were %24 percent more likely to have healthy habits compared to others who didnt share three meals with their family in one week. Also families who eat together are more connected to each other and they talk aobut lots of topics at the table while they are eating, even diet and dangerous eating habits.

In conslusion if we want healthy bodies we must eat foods are real whole, local fresh unprocessed. These are the foods which are at home. So ı recommend everybody even adults to eat at home except there is a obligation to eat outside.


Cancer There can be some errors at the newspapers that has been published daily. The article is about the scientific topic so there are many claims about topic.even if some claims are justified,they contradict the others or they are partially different from rights. The numbers and the proportions which give in article are incompatible. Also some informations give without evidence and there are no explanations about reasons. Numbers are really important for use to understand the information truely. Especially for the health articles such as this one. Because we can understand the increases or decreases from the statistics which are shown with numbers .As it is known that cancer is a disease involving abnormal cell growth with spread to other parts of the body. İt is also called ”Malignant Tumor”. The signs might be a new lump, abnormal bleeding, high amount of weight loss or it can be understand from the screening tests. There are more then 100 kinds of cancer types for human so there can be different signs and symptoms. There are lots of causes for cancer, tobacco use is the cause of about 22% percent. 10% percent is because of the obesity, a poor diet, lack of physical activity, and drinking alcohol. Also other factors iclude infections, environmental pollution and radiation. 5-10% percent of cancer can be because of genetic defect inherited from the parents. The increasing life standarts and medical advantages are leading to a growth in cancer cases because more people survive to an old age but despite, medical advantages means that a smaller proportion of cases are deadly. ”The number of people in Britain who develop cancer during their life has increased by more than a third in the past two decades, and the number of people who get cancer and die from another cause has doubled over the same period”. This means with the improvement of medical advantages people live longer so they come across more with alcohol tobacco or radiation. Thats why for a die cause, the possiblity of cancer amount gets higher. It is estimated that more than one in three people will be diagnosed with some form of cancer during their lifetime. This was calculated using the AMP method using 2010 data for the UK. This compares to an estimated risk of 1 in 35 for men and 1 in 20 for women being diagnosed with cancer up to the age of 50 year. With the statistics it seems that there is no improvement. Sometimes numbers might be mind-bending. The numbers and percentages has been increased but it is not the same with it looks. In the past people were living less and the death causes were different. They didnt have much chance to survive from cancer because medical facilities were not enough. ”The proportion of people who develop cancer but die from other causes has also increased, from 21 per cent in 1992 to 35 per cent in 2010. The number of survivors doubled during this period from 45,000 to 90,000.” This information shows that there is a high improvement. It is estimated that more than four in 10 cancer cases could be prevented by lifestyle changes, such as not smoking, cutting back on alcohol, maintaining a healthy body weight, and avoiding excessive sun exposure. But people who beat cancer can never return to their full health and feels such as fatigue. Thats why those people who has been survived from cancer should be threaten really carefully they should take help from outside. NHS should recognise this impact on people lives to plan better services and to develop more personalised care. There are currently 2 million people in Britain with the ilness and this is expected to double within the next in 20 years. This quantity contradicts the rates. Because according to my research; in 2011, population of Britain ( England and Wales) was 56.075.912. If two million people in Britain is ill,the rate of cancer in Britain is 3,5 percent, but if 42 percent of britain is ill,the quantity of patients is 25 million. In the article these rates are totally different. In headline it says “one in four Britons will get cancer”, it is so exaggerated. Between 1991-1993, 146 people were cancer out of 100.000 people. Between 2010-2012, 102 people were cancer out of 100.000 people so ” one in four” is so exaggerated. Conditions are changing so quickly. Early detection, methods of treatment, developments in medicine reduce the rate of cancer but in the article it says “42 per cent of us will develop cancer compared to around 32 percent 30 years ago.” and it says “There are currently two million people in Britain with the illness and this is expected to double within the next 20 years.” The ratio of death because of the cancer is decreased 30 per cent but in the article it says “64 per cent of sufferers will eventually die from cancer.”

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•This group working was little bit difficult for me. Because it was hard to talk with people about the project and get organized. We were four people in the group. We have our lessons in different times so it was hard to meet. Thats why we communicated from whatsapp. I always love group works because everyone can not understand everything. Each of us can understand and think from different perspective so it is good to talk and share our ideas. First we talked about the article. Everyone told their ideas about the article then everyone choosed one question and concentrated on that. At the end we shared our informations and we put all the informations and observations together. It was a different experience because ı have never been in a group work which is communicating with whatsapp.We also did group work in high school but it was easiar to communicate in school. This year this the first group work project. Group works has been started. I am sure that next one will be more easier.


İn the first lesson of Computational and Mathematical Numeracy, we discussed the importance of the numbers. We dont realize much but we see the numbers everywhere in our daily lives. Our lives are full of numbers. Sometimes we hear in songs. Sometimes we see on the billboards. We discussed the meanings of the numbers while we are listening the songs. We discovered that odd numbers are unhappiness and even ones are used for happiness. We thought that the odd ones are unhappiness because they dont have the pairs. For counting the things and to count the time again the numbers are needed. We learned that in the past ıshando bones were used for practice of arithmetics.The bones were belonged to animals. ı am intrested in this, ı have learned that lebombo bones are known as the oldest mathematical object. In math it doesnt mather which subject there is always numbers. Computers look like it has only relation with the technology but again there is numbers inside. It is about logic and arithmatic. Now I am more aware of, the importance of the numbers.