Gender Inequality

Gender Inequality

My research topic is Gender Inequality. I choosed this topic because it is a common topic that has been talked in society since long years. There are some norms and people behave accordingly related to those norms. But it has changed little bit when we look at past and now. I will search what are the inequalities between woman and man? And how did they have changed? Why they have changed? İs it neccessary to have inequalities between woman and man? İs there the same inequality between woman and man in whole world? If there is no inequalities between woman and man what would happen? I am really intrested on these questions. CMN Term Project will be a good chance for me to search and learn these questions.

The amount of gender inequality changes in every country. It is about the development amount of the country and also it is related to expectations. Every country have different expectations for both men and women.  Also it refers to the rights, resposibilites, expectations and relationship of men and women. Laws for woman are more solid when it is compared to mens. In the countries such as Egypt, Israel, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia are governed by religion based personal status. Also in Turkey, the leader of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk brought the reforms for women. He provide the same rights to women with men. They had equal rights and opportunities. These reforms are the first step for the status of woman in Turkey. As another example also in Ireland men are more advantaged as we look at the statistics of education, health, decision making and employment. For the families the decisions are made by the men. When children wants money he or she should want from their father because according to the norms men has a status of head of household. There is a male decision making power.

Also there is one more reason which is a materialist theory refers gender inequality as an outcome of how women and men are connected to the economic structure of society. This refers that womens role is being mother and wife. Women work for the directed inward to the family and mens work is directed outward to the marketplace. When women work in a marketplace they often work in lower paying jobs. And after they should take care of child women leave the job. So looking to this story we see that women have had lower level of education than men but this have been changed to reverse. Today women also want to be an individual and also want to earn the same amount of money. They want to improve themselves as personal. They also want to show that they can  survive in the world as an individual there is no need to men for survive. No one need anyone else to live their own live how they directly want and dream.

When we look at the statistics for the topics such as driving, employment, health and the decision making roles we can easily see that the male figure is usually above the female figure. For the ‘’Driving’’ topic the numbers refere that the percentage of males driving proportion was 81% in 2007-2009. And the proportion of female driving has changed and inceased from 60% to 66% in last few years.this shows that males have higher amount of driving proportion than females but as we see there is a improvement in female proportio

The second topic is ‘’Employment’’. There is a increase in ages of people who are working over time. Both in males and females when we look at the statistics. Working age females in emplotment increased from 57.1  in 1992 to 64.0 in 2009.in males it increased to 70. The reason for working was being a student and disability for males and family home responsibilities for females. In 2009 the highest proportions of both females 88.3%  and males 57.0% worked in service industries.  The proportion of males working part-time was 6.5% in 1992 and 9.5% in 2009. For females the proportion working part-time was 39.1% in 1992 and 40.2% in 2009. In 2009 the median number of basic weekly hours worked by men was 37.6 whilst for women it was 32.5. The median number of overtime hours worked in 2009 for men was 5.3 hours while it was 3.8 hours for women.

http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/gender_equality_strategy_statistics__2011_update.pdf (Labour Force Survey)

Proportion of persons of working age without a qualification

 

        OVERALL                                               GENDER

                                              Female                                                  Male

%                           %                                                    %

1992    37.0                         38.6                                                35.5

1993    35.4                         37.9                                                32.9

1994    34.9                         35.9                                                34.0

1995    31.5                         35.0                                                29.4

1996    – – –

1997    27.6                         28.9                                                26.3

1998    27.3                         28.0                                                26.6

1999    26.6                         26.6                                                26.5

2000    26.9                         27.2                                                26.7

2001    25.6                         26.4                                                24.9

2002    25.2                         26.4                                                24.0

2003    24.1                         25.5                                                22.8

2004    25.8                         24.9                                                26.7

2005    23.7                         22.9                                                24.3

2006    23.1                         22.2                                                23.9

2007    21.9                         19.5                                                24.2

2008    21.8                         18.8                                                24.5

2009    21.0                         18.9                                                22.9

year.http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/gender_equality_strategy_statistics__2011_update.pdf

The third point is ‘’Health’’. The standardised death rate for males has decreased from 9.4 per 1,000 in 1992 to 7.9 per 1,000 in 2009, and the rate for females has decreased from 9.0 per 1,000 in 1992 to 8.2 per 1,000 in 2009. In 2003/04, 63% of males and 50% of females had participated in sport or physical activity in the previous 12 months (sport or physical activity excludes walking), and this has decreased to 54% and 41% respectively in 2009/10. The proportion of males that reported being a cigarette smoker decreased from 33% in 1990/91 to 24% in 2009/10, while female cigarette smokers decreased from 31% to 24% respectively The proportion of males that reported consuming levels of alcohol above the sensible level increased from 17% in 1990/91 to 26% in 2008/09, while females consuming above the sensible level increased from 5% to 10% respectively. The EASR for lung cancer has decreased slightly for males and remained relatively stable for females. The rate for males was 77.9 per 100,000 in 1993 and 65.8 per 100,000 in 2008, while the rate for females was 34.6 per 100,000 in 1993 and 33.7 per 100,000 in 2008.

http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/gender_equality_strategy_statistics__2011_update.pdf

(Annual Report of the Registrar General Continuous Household Survey,  Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, General Registrar’s Office)

 

Standardised Death Rates

Male                                      Female                              All

1992                         9.4                                           9.0                                  9.2

1993                         9.7                                           9.4                                  9.6

1994                         9.2                                           9.2                                  9.2

1995                         9.3                                           9.3                                  9.3

1996                         9.2                                           9.2                                  9.2

1997                         8.9                                           9.0                                  9.0

1998                         8.9                                           8.9                                  8.9

1999                         9.1                                           9.5                                  9.3

2000                         8.7                                           9.0                                  8.9

2001                         8.5                                           8.7                                  8.6

2002                         8.4                                           8.8                                  8.6

2003                         8.3                                           8.7                                  8.5

2004                         8.3                                           8.5                                  8.4

2005                         8.2                                           8.3                                  8.2

2006                         8.3                                           8.4                                  8.3

2007                         8.4                                           8.3                                  8.3

2008                         8.3                                           8.5                                  8.4

2009                         7.9                                           8.2                                  8.1

 

Source: Demography and Methodology Branch, NISRA

The fourth and the last point that ı have searched is ‘’Desicion Making Roles’’. In 1997 1 in 10 people were female in civil service in the Northern Ireland Civil Service and 9 in 10 were male. In 20120 the figures were 31% female and 69% male.

http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/gender_equality_strategy_statistics__2011_update.pdf (Human Resource, Consultancy Services)

As a conclusion ı can say that ı have learned that the man and woman percentages are never same. Because their nature and nurture are different so they both have different responsibilities, expectations and goals. But in some points they look more similar. The numbers also change in every country. As we look at the numbers we can see that nearly in all of them there is an increase, in a positive way. World changes quickly and also people change with the world. It helps people to survive better and be more comfortable in life. And i also helps to be accepted by the society.

References

1) http://www.genderequality.ie/en/GE/Pages/WhatisGE  (website)

2)  http://www.mfa.gov.tr/the-right-of-women_-gender-equality-and-struggle-with-   violence-against-women.en.mfa  (website)

3)  http://listverse.com/2008/11/20/10-extreme-examples-of-gender-inequality/ (website)

4)  http://dmc122011.delmar.edu/socsci/rlong/problems/chap-09.htm (website)

5)  https://familyinequality.wordpress.com/2012/01/09/a-little-shecovery/ (website)

6) http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/gender_equality_strategy_statistics__2011_update.pdf

(e-book)

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